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Monday, January 26, 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

'July Effect' doesn’t apply to length of surgery

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 04:01 PM PST

The "July Effect" -- when newly trained physicians begin their residency at teaching hospitals, potentially increasing the risk of medical errors -- doesn't appear to lengthen surgeries during that month, according to an American study.

3-D view of Greenland Ice Sheet opens window on ice history

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 11:09 AM PST

Scientists using ice-penetrating radar have created 3-D maps of the age of the ice within the Greenland Ice Sheet. The new maps will aid future research to understand the impact of climate change on the ice sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet is the second largest mass of ice on Earth, containing enough water to raise ocean levels by about 20 feet.

Lead negatively impacts cognitive functions of boys more than girls

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 11:09 AM PST

The female hormones estrogen and estradiol may help ward off the effects of lead exposure for young girls, explaining why boys, are shown to suffer more often from the cognitive disabilities linked to lead.

Acute heart failure patients bounce back to ERs for complex reasons

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 10:51 AM PST

A tool designed to assess what interferes with acute heart failure patients' ability to care for themselves after hospital discharge holds promise for improving patient outcomes and reducing re-admissions to the hospital. The patient survey shed light on the non-medical issues that limit patients' ability to care for themselves.

Improving antibiotics to treat staph infections

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 10:51 AM PST

New information about how antibiotics like azithromycin stop staph infections has been uncovered, including why staph sometimes becomes resistant to drugs. Staphylococcus aureus (familiar to many as the common and sometimes difficult to treat staph infection) is a strain of bacteria that frequently has become resistant to antibiotics, a development that has been challenging for doctors and dangerous for patients with severe infections.

Early English exposure prepares Spanish-speaking children for academic success

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 09:17 AM PST

Family members, teachers and peers can play different roles in shaping Spanish-speaking children's school readiness and English skills that are vital to children's academic success, research confirms.

More light shed on on biomass breakdown

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 09:17 AM PST

A recently discovered family of enzymes can degrade resistant forms of starch, researchers report. Starch is a polysaccharide that is highly prevalent in both food and plants. Determining the way it is broken down by an LPMO now offers potential for utilising this starch in new ways, potentially including the production of biofuels.

Efficient methylating enzyme identified for cancer development

Posted: 23 Jan 2015 07:25 AM PST

A recent study may help begin to explain how cancer develops though the abnormal turning on and off of genes. Researchers have discovered that the increase of methyl tags in cancer cells is due to highly efficient DNA methyl transferase 1 (DNMT1) enzymes found in these cells.

Mammalian heart regenerative capacity depends on severity of injury

Posted: 22 Jan 2015 04:38 PM PST

Neonatal mouse hearts have varying regenerative capacities depending upon the severity of injury, researchers have demonstrated. Approaches to extend this regenerative capacity in a mammalian model, from the neonatal period to the juvenile or adult period, could help identify new treatment options for humans.

Newer foam rollers benefit muscles, not hair

Posted: 22 Jan 2015 04:38 PM PST

"Think of your muscles as shoelaces," advises an exercise physiologist. "If you have a knot in your muscle, stretching pulls it tighter." The answer to eliminating the knots and restoring optimal flexibility is foam rollers, this expert says.

High blood calcium levels linked with increased risk of premature death in dialysis patients

Posted: 22 Jan 2015 04:38 PM PST

Both low and high blood calcium levels, as well as high phosphorus levels, have been found to be linked with an increased risk of dying prematurely in dialysis patients, regardless of the type of dialysis, experts say. The findings address a pending Medicare quality measure related to dialysis patients' blood calcium levels.

Rediscovering a culture of health in Canada's First Nations communities

Posted: 22 Jan 2015 02:00 PM PST

Diabetes is a prevalent and growing health concern among many of Alberta's First Nations communities. As health specialists look to address the problem, a researcher believes part of the solution could come from First Nations traditions, noting that First Nations communities with a greater connection to their culture are experiencing far lower rates of diabetes.

Genome-wide search reveals new genes involved in long-term memory

Posted: 22 Jan 2015 01:59 PM PST

Genes involved in long-term memory in the worm have been discovered as part of research aimed at finding ways to retain cognitive abilities during aging. The study identified more than 750 genes involved in long-term memory, including many that had not been found previously and that could serve as targets for future research, said the study's senior author.

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